The Role of the Price, Income and Efficiency Factors in Iran’s Energy Intensity

Document Type : Research Paper



The main goal of this study is to identify the determinants of the energy intensity in the Iranian economy using annual data for the period 1974-2012. Changes in energy intensity can be seen as related to three factors including price, income, and autonomous energy efficiency improvements (based on technical progress). Moreover the role of energy quality in enhancement of total factor productivity and the reduction of energy intensity are also investigated. Hence, methods such as index decomposition technique, ARDL, 3SLS, and SVAR (Blanchard-Quah approach) models are used for these purposes. Energy intensity decomposition results show that energy consumption inefficiency is the most essential factor that forcing the energy intensity. Estimated results show that there is a linear positive relationship between energy intensity and real income per capita, and the income elasticity of energy demand is larger than unit. Growth in the industry share of production, increase in total factor productivity, and growth of the relative price of energy in long or short term reduce energy intensity. Considering the level of importance, factors related to the TFP, relative price of energy, structure of production, and income will have more impact on the energy intensity, respectively. The policy implication of this research is the energy relative prices reform is just necessary and not sufficient condition for the energy intensity reduction and this policy should be considered with other complementary factors aimed to the technical progress and the TFP improvement.


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  • Receive Date: 16 June 2015
  • Revise Date: 13 December 2015
  • Accept Date: 14 February 2016
  • First Publish Date: 22 August 2016