The Effects of Knowledge-Based Economy's Components on Entrepreneurship in a Group of Selected Countries

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor, Economics Department, Al-Zahra University

2 Professor, Economics Department, Bu-Ali Sina University

3 M.A. of Economics, Al-Zahra University


Many countries in the world have long been trying to find a solution that would allow them to achieve economic growth and development through which more wealth, prosperity and utility can be achieved. Economists consider entrepreneurship the most important solution, which has recently attracted the attention of many countries. Knowledge-based economy is one of the most important tools resulting in economic growth and development by enhancing entrepreneurship. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effects of knowledge-based economy’s components, based on the definition provided by the World Bank (training and human resource, innovation system, information and communication technology (ICT), and economic and institutional regimes) on newly-developed entrepreneurship in 10 resource-driven countries (including Iran) and 18 innovation-driven countries. This study has been conducted using panel data techniques and generalized method of moments (GMM) during the time span extending from 2008 to 2015. The findings of the study show that for the resource-driven countries, all of the components of knowledge-based economy, except the ICT variable, have significant positive effects on entrepreneurship. In the innovation-driven countries, all of the components of knowledge-based economy have had significant positive effects on entrepreneurship.
 JEL Classification: I25­, O15, C23


Main Subjects

  1. ابونوری، عباسعلی و متوسل، شهرزاد (1391). بررسی تأثیر حقوق مالکیت کارآمد و مالیات بر کارآفرینی در اقتصاد کشورهای منتخب و ایران. پژوهشنامه‌ی مالیات، 16 (64)، 189-163.
  2. رادنیا، مرجان، رادنیا، مسعود و جزایری، مرتضی (1394). اثر فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات (ICT) بر فضای کسب و­ کار کشورهای OECD­ و­G77. کنگره‌ی بین‌المللی مدیریت اقتصاد و توسعه‌ی کسب‌وکار، تبریز، 6 و 7 آبان ماه.
  3. طیبی، کمیل و فخری، مریم (1389). آثار جهانی شدن و تجارت بین­الملل بر توسعه‌ی کارآفرینی.  فصلنامه‌ی توسعه‌ی کارآفرینی، 3 (9)، 54-37.
  4. عمادزاده، مصطفی و شهنازی، روح اله (1386). ­بررسی مبانی و شاخص‌های اقتصاد دانایی‌­محور و جایگاه آن در کشورهای منتخب در مقایسه با ایران­. پژوهشنامه‌ی اقتصادی، 7 (4)، 175-143.
  5. عمادزاده، مصطفی (1382). اقتصاد آموزش و پرورش. اصفهان: انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی.
  6. گرائلی­شیخ، رقیه و ولوی، پروانه (1390). ­بررسی نقش فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات در ارتقای کارآفرینی. کنفرانس ملی کارآفرینی، تعاون، جهاد اقتصادی، نائین، 28 و 29 آذرماه.
  7. گرجی­زاده، عطیه و شریفی­رنانی، حسین (1393). نقش اقتصاد دانش­بنیان در کنترل تورم.  فصلنامه‌ی مدل‌سازی اقتصادی، 8 (2)، 125-107.
  8. محمدزاده، یوسف، رهبر، فرهاد و قهرمانی، هادی (1395). تأثیر رانت منابع طبیعی بر روی توسعه‌ی کارآفرینی. پژوهش‌های مدیریت راهبردی، 22 (61)، 98-77.

9. Abdullah, N., Wahab, H. E., & Shamsuddin, A. (2010). Human Resource Practice as Predictors of Innovative among Johor SMEs. International conference on science and social research, December 5-7, 2010, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

10. Acs, Z.J., Braunerhjelm, P., & Audretsch, D. B. (2009). The Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 32(1), 15-30.

11. Adams, R., Bessant, J., & Phelps, R. (2006). "Innovation management measurement: A review. International Journal of Management Reviews, 8(1), 21-47.

12. Alexeev, M., & Conrad, R. (2010). The Natural Resource Curse and Economic Transition. Center for Applied Economics and Policy Research, Working Paper, No 018-2009.

­13. Audretsch, D. B. (2007). The Entrepreneurial Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

14. Audretch, D. B., & Keilbach, M. (2008). Resolving the Knowledge
Paradox: Knowledge-spillover Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth. Research Policy, 37, 1697-1705.

15. Chang, S., Gong, Y., & Shum, C. (2011). Promoting Innovation in Hospitality Companies through Human Resource Management Practices. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(4), 812-818.

16. Chen, D. H. C., & Dahlman, C. J. (2004). Knowledge and Development: A Crosssection Approach. World Bank Policy Research, Working Paper, No 3366. Seoul, Korea.

17. Choi, Y. R., & Phan, P. H. (2006). The Influences of Economic and Technology Policy on the Dynamics of New Firm Formation. Journal of Small Business Economics, 26(5), 493-503.

18. Cheol Cin, B., Kim, Y., & Vonortas, N. (2013). The Impact of Government R&D Subsidy on Firm Performance: Evidence from Korean SMEs, Asian Research Policy Symposium, Asian Model of Innovation: Innovation and Creative Economy.

19. Clercq, D. D., Hessels, J., & Stel, A. (2008). Knowledge Spillovers and New Ventures’ Export Orientation. Small Business Economics, 31(3),

20. Czarnitzki, D., Doherr, Th., Hussinger, K., Schliessler, P., & Toole, A. A. (2016). Knowledge Creates Markets: The Influence of Entrepreneurial Support and Patent Rights on Academic Entrepreneurship. European Economic Review, 86, 131–146.

21. Dewan, S., & Kenneth, K. (2000). Information Technology and Productivity: Preliminary Evidence from Country- level Data. Management science, 46(4), 458-562.

22. Farzanegan, M. R. (2014). Can Oil Rich Countries Encourage Entrepreneurship? Journal of Entrepreneurship and Region Development, 25(9-10), 706-725.

23. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (2015): available through
  http:// www.gemconsortium.Org

24. Gicheva, D., & Link, A. N. (2016). On the Economic Performance of Nascent Entrepreneurs. European Economic Review, 86, 109–117.

25. Henry, C. (2003). Developing a Coherent Enterprise Support Policy: A New Challenge for Governments. Government and policy Journal, 9,

26. Kolstad, I., & Wiig, A. (2015). Education and Entrepreneurial Success. Small Business Economics, 44(4), 783–796.

27. Kokkinou, A. (2005). Entrepreneurship, Innovation Activities and Regional Growth. 45th European Congress of the RegionalScience Association, 1-18.

28. Krueger, A. (1974). The Political Economy of the Rent-Seeking Society. American Economic Review, LXIV, 291–303.

29. Latha, L., & Murthy, B. E. (2009). Problems of small-scale entrepreneurs in Nellore district. Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship, 1(3), 268-278.

30. Mathew, V. (2010). Women Entrepreneurship in Middle East: Understanding Barriers and Use of ICT for Entrepreneurship Development. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 6(2), 163–181.

31. Petroczi, A., Nepusz, T., & Bazso, F. (2007). Measuring Tie-Strength in Virtual Social Network, 2(5), 1-5.

32. Pohjola, M. (2001). Information Technology and Economic Growth: A
Cross-country Analysis
. Oxford University Press.

33. Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development. By Joseph A.Schumpeter, Translated from the German by Redvers Opie, Harvard University Press.

34. Shane, S., Locke, E., & Collin, C. (2003). Entrepreneurial Motivation. Human Resource Management Review, 13(2), 257-279.

35. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of management review, 25(1), 217-226.

36. Sinkovics, R. R., Bell, J., & Deans, K. R. (2004). Using Information Communication Technology to Develop International Entrepreneurship Competencies. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 2(1), 125–137.

37. Tayebi S. K., Azarbaiejani, K., & Abbaslou, Y. (2009). Exploration of the Relationship between Cultural-socio-economic Determinants and Entrepreneurship. Quarterly Iranian Economic Research, 13(39), 11-27.

38. Torvik, R. (2009).  Why do some resource- abundant countries succeed while others do not? Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 25(2), 241-256.

39. World Bank (2015). World Development Indicators. Retrieved from

40. Zack, M. H. (1999). Developing a Knowledge Strategy. California Management Review, 41(3), 125-145.