بکارگیری الگوهای چندسطحی در بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر تمایل به ماندگاری جوانان در روستاها (مطالعه موردی: روستاهای منتخب استان کرمانشاه).

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

2 استاد دانشکده اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

3 دانشیار دانشکده اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

چکیده

 
مطالعه حاضر با به‌کارگیری الگوهای چندسطحی ترتیبی، تمایل به ماندگاری جوانان روستایی را در شهرستان‌های منتخب استان کرمانشاه برای سال 1396، موردبررسی قرار می‌دهد. سه شهرستان قصرشیرین، پاوه و هرسین و یک روستا از دهستان‌های هر شهرستان نیز به صورت تصادفی با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری طبقه‌بندی دومرحله‌ای انتخاب شده‏اند. متغیر وابسته، تمایل به ماندگاری افراد تا 5 سال آینده است. نتایج تحقیق، وجود ناهمسانی‌ها در بین روستاها و شهرستان‌های مورد مطالعه را موردتأیید قرار داده و متغیر جنسیت بر تمایل به ماندگاری جوانان مؤثر بوده است. از سویی، دقت الگوهای چندسطحی نسبت به سایر الگوهای قدیمی نشان داد که برخلاف سایر مطالعات؛ متغیر میزان تحصیلات و سن بی‌معنی شده است. متغیرهای امکانات روستایی، جمعیت و فاصله روستا تا شهر نیز در سطح روستاها و در نهایت متغیر جمعیت شهرستان در سطح سوم، معنی‌دار شده‏اندند. بر اساس نتایج تحقیق؛ با بهبود وضعیت راه‌های روستایی و افزایش امکانات روستایی، می‌توان ماندگاری جوانان روستایی در منطقه موردمطالعه را تحت تأثیر قرار داد، لذا می‌توان با افزایش امکانات اولیه رفاهی و زیرساخت‌های جاده‌ای انگیزه جوانان را به مهاجرت کاهش داد. از سویی با افزایش امکانات رفاهی نیز سایر موقعیت‌های مشاغل خدماتی و غیرکشاورزی مرتبط با زیرمجموعه‌های متغیر امکانات روستایی ایجاد می‌شود. بر همین اساس، شکاف‌های درآمدی بین مناطق روستایی- شهری، کاهش و در نتیجه از تخلیه روستاها جلوگیری به عمل می‌آید. با توجه به تأیید ناهمسانی‌ها در جامعه موردمطالعه، این نتیجه حاصل شده است که اجرای سیاست‌گذاری‌های کلی در راستای کاهش مهاجرت جوانان، همواره با شکست مواجه می‌شود. بنابراین پیشنهاد می‌گردد که در سیاست‌گذاری‌های مرتبط با کاهش مهاجرت روستاییان، مجموعه هر روستا و هر شهرستان به طور مجزا و نه به صورت استانی مورد مطالعه و برنامه‌ریزی قرار گیرند.
طبقه‌بندی JEL: C81، D04، O12

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Using Multilevel Model to Investigate Factors Affecting on Intention to Stay of Young People in Villages (Case Study: The Selected Cities of Kermanshah Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • mehdi mahmoudi 1
  • Mahmoud Daneshvar Kakhki 2
  • naser shahnoushi 2
  • Hossein Mohammadi 3
1 Master Student of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Professor of Agricultural Economics Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

The present study, using ordered multilevel model, examines Intention to stay of young people in Villages in selected cities of Kermanshah province for 1396. Three cities of Qasr_shirin, Paveh and Harsin and one village from villages of each city were randomly selected using two stage stratified sampling method. Dependent variable is Intention to stay of young people in Villages to five years. The results of study confirmed existence of inconsistencies between villages and studied cities. Gender variable was effective on Intention to stay of young people in Villages. On the other hand, accuracy of multilevel model compared to other old model showed that variables of education and age were insignificant unlike other studies. The variables of rural facilities, population and distance from village to city were also significant at village’s level and finally, population variable in level third. Based on research results, improving rural roads and increasing rural facilities can affect survival of rural youth in the study area. Therefore, it is possible to reduce migration of young people by increasing basic welfare facilities and infrastructure of motive road. On the one hand, with increasing in amenities, other services and non-agricultural jobs associated with the variable subdivisions of rural facilities are created. Hence, income gaps between rural and urban areas will be reduced, thus preventing from evacuation of villages. Regarding confirmation of heterogeneity in surveyed community, it was concluded that the implementation of general policies to reduce migration of young people has always failed. Therefore, it is suggested that in the policies related to the decrease of rural population, villages of each village and each city are separately analyzed and not provincial.
JEL Classification:C81, D04, O12

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Intention to stay in rural
  • Migration
  • Rural youth
  • Rural Development
  • Multilevel approach
نجف آبادی، سعید (1388). سنجش میزان انگیزه مهاجرت جوانان روستایی و عوامل مؤثر بر آن در شهرستان نجف‌آباد، دانشکده کشاورزی، اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز.

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